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Absolute BSD: The Ultimate Guide to FreeBSD 13 larage cynthia grail
Are you looking for a free, open-source, and powerful operating system that can run on almost any device? Do you want to learn how to install, use, and customize one of the oldest and most stable Unix-like systems in the world? If so, then this article is for you.
Absolute BSD: The Ultimate Guide To FreeBSD 13 larage cynthia grail
In this article, we will introduce you to FreeBSD 13, the latest release of the popular BSD operating system. We will explain what FreeBSD is, why you should use it, and what are its main features and improvements. We will also show you how to install FreeBSD 13 on your device, and how to use it for common tasks. By the end of this article, you will have a solid understanding of FreeBSD 13 and its capabilities.
What is FreeBSD?
FreeBSD is a free and open-source operating system that is derived from the original BSD Unix developed at the University of California at Berkeley in the 1970s. BSD stands for Berkeley Software Distribution, and it is one of the oldest and most influential Unix-like systems in history. BSD was the basis for many other operating systems, such as macOS, iOS, Solaris, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonFly BSD, and more.
FreeBSD is one of the most popular and widely used BSD variants today. It supports many different architectures, such as x86-32, x86-64, ARM, POWER, RISC-V, and more. It also runs on various devices, such as desktops, laptops, servers, routers, firewalls, embedded systems, gaming consoles, and more. Some well-known products and services that are based on or use FreeBSD include Netflix, Sony's PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 operating systems, OPNsense firewall, WhatsApp, Juniper Networks routers, Dell EMC storage systems, Nintendo Switch OS, Tesla Model S OS, and more.
FreeBSD is known for its stability, performance, security, flexibility, and scalability. It has a large and active community of developers and users who contribute to its development and maintenance. It also has a rich collection of software packages that can be easily installed and managed using its built-in package manager. Furthermore, it can run Linux binaries directly using its Linux compatibility layer.
Why use FreeBSD?
There are many reasons why you might want to use FreeBSD as your operating system of choice. Here are some of the main benefits and features of FreeBSD that make it stand out from other operating systems:
ZFS is a revolutionary filesystem that was originally developed by Sun Microsystems for its Solaris operating system. ZFS offers many advantages over traditional filesystems, such as data integrity, compression, encryption, deduplication, snapshots, clones, RAID, pools, volumes, and more. ZFS is also designed to be self-healing and resilient to corruption and data loss.
FreeBSD has supported ZFS for years, but in FreeBSD 13, it has moved to the new OpenZFS tree, which is a unified project that aims to maintain and develop ZFS across different platforms. OpenZFS brings many new features and improvements to FreeBSD 13, such as persistent L2ARC, sequential scrub and resilver, zstd compression, redacted send and receive, dRAID, and more. OpenZFS also ensures compatibility and interoperability with other operating systems that use OpenZFS, such as Linux and macOS.
A toolchain is a set of tools that are used to compile, link, and debug programs. The most common toolchain for Unix-like systems is the GNU toolchain, which consists of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), the GNU Binutils, the GNU Debugger (GDB), and other utilities. The GNU toolchain is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), which is a copyleft license that requires any modified or derived versions of the software to be licensed under the same terms.
FreeBSD has been using the Clang/llvm toolchain as its default toolchain for its Tier-1 architectures (such as x86-64) for a few years now. Clang/llvm is an alternative toolchain that consists of the Clang compiler, the LLVM linker (lld), the LLVM debugger (lldb), and other utilities. Clang/llvm is licensed under the Apache 2.0 license, which is a permissive license that allows modified or derived versions of the software to be licensed under any terms.
In FreeBSD 13, Clang/llvm has been updated to version 11.0.1, and it has been extended to support all platforms that FreeBSD supports, including RISC-V. This means that FreeBSD 13 can use a modern and consistent toolchain across all architectures, which simplifies development and maintenance. It also means that FreeBSD 13 can leverage the advantages of Clang/llvm over GCC, such as faster compilation speed, better diagnostics, better code generation, better standards compliance, better cross-compilation support, better security features, and more.
FreeBSD 13 also brings many performance improvements to the operating system, especially on modern hardware. Some of these improvements include:
Support for newer Intel Wi-Fi chipsets
Support for AMD Zen 3 CPUs
Support for ARMv8.5-A memory tagging extension
Support for UEFI booting on RISC-V
Improved network performance with TCP/IP stack enhancements
Improved disk performance with NVMe driver enhancements
Improved memory management with NUMA optimizations
Improved virtualization performance with bhyve enhancements
Improved security performance with AES-NI acceleration
These performance improvements make FreeBSD 13 faster and more efficient on modern devices, while still maintaining compatibility and stability on older devices.
How to install FreeBSD 13?
If you are convinced by the benefits and features of FreeBSD 13 and want to try it out on your device, you will need to follow these steps to install it:
Requirements and preparation
Before you install FreeBSD 13 on your device, you will need to make sure that you have the following requirements:
A device that is supported by FreeBSD 13 (you can check the hardware compatibility list here)
A USB flash drive or a DVD with at least 4 GB of space
An internet connection (preferably wired)
A backup of your important data (in case something goes wrong)
You will also need to prepare your device for installing FreeBSD 13 by doing the following:
Disable any secure boot or fast boot options in your BIOS or UEFI settings
Create some free space on your hard disk for installing FreeBSD 13 (you can use a partition manager tool or shrink an existing partition)
Downloading and verifying the image
The next step is to download the FreeBSD 13 image that matches your device's architecture and platform. You can download the image from the official FreeBSD website or from one of the mirror sites. The image file will have a .iso extension if you want to burn it to a DVD, or a .img extension if you want to write it to a USB flash drive.
After downloading the image file, you will need to verify its integrity and authenticity using a checksum or a signature. A checksum is a string of numbers and letters that is calculated from the image file and can be used to detect any errors or corruption in the file. A signature is a file that is created by the FreeBSD developers using a cryptographic key and can be used to verify that the image file has not been tampered with or modified by anyone else.
You can find the checksums and signatures for the FreeBSD 13 images on the same page where you downloaded the image file. You will need to use a tool such as sha256sum or gpg to check the checksum or signature of the image file. If the checksum or signature matches the one provided by the FreeBSD website, then you can proceed to the next step. If not, then you will need to download the image file again or use a different mirror site.
Booting and partitioning
The next step is to boot your device from the FreeBSD 13 image that you downloaded and verified. You will need to insert the USB flash drive or DVD into your device and change the boot order in your BIOS or UEFI settings to boot from it. Alternatively, you can use a tool such as Rufus or Etcher to create a bootable USB flash drive from the image file.
Once you boot from the FreeBSD 13 image, you will see a menu with several options. You can choose to start FreeBSD 13 in live mode, which will allow you to try it out without installing it on your hard disk, or you can choose to install FreeBSD 13 on your hard disk. You can also choose to run some tests or access some utilities from this menu.
If you choose to install FreeBSD 13 on your hard disk, you will be greeted by a text-based installer that will guide you through the installation process. The first thing you will need to do is to select your keyboard layout and language. Then, you will need to choose how you want to partition your hard disk for installing FreeBSD 13.
You can choose to use the entire disk for FreeBSD 13, which will erase any existing data and partitions on your hard disk, or you can choose to use only some free space on your hard disk for FreeBSD 13, which will preserve any existing data and partitions on your hard disk. You can also choose to customize your partition layout manually, which will give you more control over how you want to allocate space for FreeBSD 13.
The installer will also ask you whether you want to use UFS or ZFS as your filesystem for FreeBSD 13. UFS is the traditional Unix filesystem that has been used by FreeBSD for a long time. ZFS is the new filesystem that offers many advanced features and benefits over UFS. We recommend using ZFS if your device has enough memory (at least 4 GB) and supports it.
After choosing your partition layout and filesystem, you will need to confirm your choices and let the installer create and format the partitions for FreeBSD 13. This may take some time depending on the size and speed of your hard disk.
Configuring and installing
The next step is to configure some basic settings for your FreeBSD 13 system, such as hostname, network, timezone, root password, user account, services, etc. The installer will ask you some questions and present you with some options for each setting. You can accept the default values or change them according to your preferences.
After configuring your settings, you will need to select which packages or components you want to install on your FreeBSD 13 system. You can choose from several categories, such as base system, ports collection, documentation, kernel sources, etc. You can also choose whether you want to install them from the internet or from the local media.
After selecting your packages or components, you will need to confirm your choices and let the installer download and install them on your FreeBSD 13 system. This may take some time depending on your internet speed and the number of packages or components you selected.
When the installation is complete, you will need to reboot your device and remove the USB flash drive or DVD. You will then be able to boot into your newly installed FreeBSD 13 system and start using it.
How to use FreeBSD 13?
Now that you have installed FreeBSD 13 on your device, you may be wondering how to use it for common tasks. In this section, we will give you a beginner's guide to using FreeBSD 13 for some basic operations, such as updating and upgrading, installing and managing packages, configuring and customizing, etc. We will assume that you are using the default shell (tcsh) and the default text editor (vi) for this guide.
Updating and upgrading
One of the first things you should do after installing FreeBSD 13 is to update and upgrade your system to the latest version and patches. This will ensure that your system is secure and stable, and that you have access to the latest features and improvements.
To update and upgrade your system, you will need to use the freebsd-update and pkg commands. The freebsd-update command is used to update the base system, which includes the kernel, the core utilities, the libraries, etc. The pkg command is used to update the packages or components that you installed on top of the base system, such as ports collection, documentation, kernel sources, etc.
To update and upgrade your base system, you will need to run the following commands as root:
# freebsd-update fetch # freebsd-update install
The first command will fetch the latest updates from the FreeBSD servers. The second command will install them on your system. You may need to reboot your device after installing the updates.
To update and upgrade your packages or components, you will need to run the following commands as root:
# pkg update # pkg upgrade
The first command will update the database of available packages or components from the FreeBSD servers. The second command will upgrade them on your system. You may need to restart some services after upgrading the packages or components.
Installing and managing packages
One of the main advantages of FreeBSD is its rich collection of software packages that can be easily installed and managed using its built-in package manager. There are two ways to install software on FreeBSD: using binary packages or using ports.
Binary packages are pre-compiled and ready-to-use software that can be downloaded and installed on your system with a single command. Ports are source code and scripts that can be compiled and installed on your system with a few commands. Ports offer more flexibility and customization options than binary packages, but they also require more time and resources to build.
To install software using binary packages, you will need to use the pkg command. For example, if you want to install Firefox, a popular web browser, you will need to run the following command as root:
# pkg install firefox
This command will download and install Firefox and its dependencies on your system. You can then launch Firefox from the command line or from a graphical menu (if you have installed a desktop environment).
To install software using ports, you will need to use the make command. For example, if you want to install GIMP, a popular image editor, you will need to run the following commands as root:
# cd /usr/ports/graphics/gimp # make config # make install clean
The first command will change your current directory to the port directory of GIMP. The second command will let you configure some options for GIMP before building it. The third command will build and install GIMP and its dependencies on your system. You can then launch GIMP from the command line or from a graphical menu (if you have installed a desktop environment).
Configuring and customizing
One of the main features of FreeBSD is its flexibility and customizability. You can tweak your FreeBSD system to your liking by editing some configuration files or using some utilities. Here are some examples of how you can configure and customize your FreeBSD system:
To change your hostname, edit /etc/rc.conf and add or modify the hostname variable.
To change your timezone, run tzsetup as root and follow the instructions.
To change your network settings, edit /etc/rc.conf and add or modify the ifconfig variables.
To change your shell, run chsh as root or as a user and enter the path of your preferred shell.
To change your text editor, edit /etc/profile or /.profile and add or modify the EDITOR variable.
To change your desktop environment, install your preferred desktop environment using binary packages or ports, and edit /etc/rc.conf and add or modify the hald_enable and dbus_enable variables to enable the HAL and DBus services. Then, edit /.xinitrc and add or modify the exec command to launch your desktop environment.
To change your login manager, install your preferred login manager using binary packages or ports, and edit /etc/rc.conf and add or modify the slim_enable variable to enable the SLiM service. Then, edit /usr/local/etc/slim.conf and add or modify the default_user and current_theme variables to set your default user and theme.
These are just some examples of how you can configure and customize your FreeBSD system. You can find more information and options in the FreeBSD handbook, the man pages, and the online forums.
In this article, we have introduced you to FreeBSD 13, the latest release of the popular BSD operating system. We have explained what FreeBSD is, why you should use it, and what are its main features and improvements. We have also shown you how to install FreeBSD 13 on your device, and how to use it for common tasks.
We hope that this article has given you a solid understanding of FreeBSD 13 and its capabilities. If you are interested in learning more about FreeBSD 13 or BSD in general, we recommend that you check out the following resources:
The official FreeBSD website: https://www.freebsd.org/
The official FreeBSD handbook: https://docs.freebsd.org/en/books/handbook/
The official FreeBSD forums: https://forums.freebsd.org/
The official FreeBSD wiki: https://wiki.freebsd.org/
The Absolute FreeBSD book by Michael W. Lucas: https://nostarch.com/absfreebsd3
FreeBSD 13 is a free, open-source, and powerful operating system that can run on almost any device. It offers many benefits and features over other operating systems, such as stability, performance, security, flexibility, scalability, OpenZFS support, Clang/llvm toolchain, performance improvements, and more. It also has a rich collection of software packages that can be easily installed and managed using its built-in package manager.
If you are looking for a new operating system to try out or switch to, we highly recommend that you give FreeBSD 13 a try. You might be surprised by how much you like it.
Here are some frequently asked questions about FreeBSD 13:
What is larage cynthia grail?
Larage cynthia grail is a codename for FreeBSD 13 that was chosen by the FreeBSD developers as a tribute to Cynthia Larage Grail, a former FreeBSD developer who passed away in 2020. Cynthia was a core team member and a ports committer who contributed to many aspects of FreeBSD development. She was also a mentor and a friend to many in the FreeBSD community.
How can I update from an older version of FreeBSD to FreeBSD 13?
You can update from an older version of FreeBSD to FreeBSD 13 using the freebsd-update command. For example, if you are running FreeBSD 12.2-RELEASE, you can run the following commands as root:
# freebsd-update upgrade -r 13.0-RELEASE # freebsd-update install # shutdown -r now # freebsd-update install # pkg-static upgrade -f # shutdown -r now
The first command will fetch the updates from the FreeBSD servers. The second command will install them on your system. The third command will reboot your system into FreeBSD 13. The fourth command will install any remaining updates on your system. The fifth command will upgrade your packages or components to their latest versions. The sixth command will reboot your system again.
How can I dual-boot FreeBSD 13 with another operating system?
You can dual-boot FreeBSD 13 with another operating system by creating separate partitions for each operating system on your hard disk, and using a boot manager to choose which operating system to b