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Mini Dragon Group (ages 6-7)

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Oliver Parker
Oliver Parker

Post Mortem - Kate London.epub

Methods: We used molecular techniques to detect enterovirus RNA in peripheral blood samples (in separated cellular compartments or plasma) from two cohorts comprising 79 children or 72 adults that include individuals with and without type 1 diabetes who had multiple autoantibodies. We also used immunohistochemistry to detect the enteroviral protein VP1 in the pancreatic islets of post-mortem donors (n=43) with type 1 diabetes.

Post Mortem - Kate London.epub

Results: Although the chimpanzees displayed large quantities of supragingival plaque, they had low bleeding scores. Peripheral blood neutrophils responded to innate and adaptive immune stimuli. In the follow up period two animals died and post mortem confirmed heart disease. Levels of NT-proBNP were found to be high in chimpanzees that died from heart disease.

Abstract: Simple SummaryAvian malaria is caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. This vector-borne parasite is spread by mosquitoes and has a variable significance depending on environmental, host, mosquito and parasite factors. Captive penguins in non-native environments are exposed to the protozoa without having coevolved with them and are especially sensitive to infection. The most common presentation of the disease in affected penguins is acute death. Infection of wild penguins is reported and a greater understanding of the significance of such infections is required. Global warming and related surges in vector availability present an increasing threat to conservation in captive environments and targeted research into the early diagnosis of disease is required. Current diagnostic methods predominantly rely upon direct microscopy and/or molecular testing on tissues obtained from penguin postmortem examinations, and frequently fail to identify the causative agent at a species level. There are several barriers to the development of a rapid method to detect infection and the causative species; however, this information would further our understanding of this disease, and development of such a method is a valuable undertaking. This paper provides a summary of current diagnostic methods, identifies the likely future impacts of avian malaria in penguins, and highlights the need to improve both the speed and scope of available diagnostics. AbstractAvian malaria is caused by infection with haemoprotozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection is endemic in large parts of the world and is typically subclinical in birds that are native to these regions. Several penguin species have evolved in non-endemic regions without the selective pressure that these parasites exert and are highly susceptible to infection when transplanted to endemic regions, for example, in the context of zoological collections or rehabilitation centers. Avian malaria in penguins typically causes acute mortality without premonitory signs, or less commonly, nonspecific signs of morbidity, followed by mortality. Additionally, infection is reported in wild penguins, though the significance of these infections remains equivocal. As global temperatures continue to increase, avian malaria is likely to pose a continued and further threat to conservation efforts in captive environments. Intra vitam diagnosis currently relies on the evaluation of blood smears and molecular methods. The former is unreliable in penguins, as the acute clinical course typically does not allow the development of parasitemia. This absence of parasitemia also makes speciation challenging. Current molecular methods typically target the Cytochrome B or 18s subunit and have proven variably sensitive and specific. Reliable intra vitam diagnosis of avian malaria and further information about the causative agents at a species level would be very valuable in understanding the epidemiology and likely future course of avian malaria infection in penguins, and in particular, the implications avian malaria may have for conservation efforts. This paper provides an overview of malaria in penguins, discusses its changing impact on management and conservation, offers a summary of current diagnostics, and suggests future direction for the development of diagnostic tests. The latter will be key in understanding and managing this disease.Keywords: avian; malaria; penguin; Plasmodium; diagnostics; PCR; climate change 041b061a72


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